Saturday, March 28, 2020
Gym grades affecting your grade point average is a very debated topic. I believe that is should be graded and hereÃ¢â¬â¢s why. Imagine having to do all the work to get a good grade in gym, and then finding out its not even being graded. You would probably not see a need to try anymore. That means no more effort, no more showing up in uniforms, and then eventually simply skipping it entirely. Two decades ago, 42 percent of public school children attended gym classes daily. Today, gym has been reduced to once a week in many schools. Nationally, only 4 percent of elementary schools, 8 percent of middle schools, and 2 percent of high schools in the U. S. provide daily gym classes. The department of Education is required to create district plans for PE. Their last report was written in 1982. Since then childhood and adult obesity has been recognized as a significant public health issue. We will write a custom essay sample on Should Your Grade in Gym Affect Your GPA or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In 2002, a team of public health scientists and nurses found that over 50 percent of kindergarteners through fifth graders were overweight or obese. All of this is going on, yet schools are still getting rid of gym class. They find it a waste of money since nobody shows up or even tries; all because itÃ¢â¬â¢s not counted for a grade. Getting rid of gym class will just make obesity rates rise. Daily physical education has been found to increase kidÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities to learn and focus. Over 50 studies have confirmed the following academic benefits of physical education: Increased PE time increases studentÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to focus and stay on task. Short PE breaks of only 20 minutes can help students pay attention in class and even score better on tests. Physical activity releases endorphins that make us feel happier. Countless sources have all verified the positive effects of physical education on school performance; no studies have shown a negative effect. Clearly, physical education has been helping us learn better, and should be kept in schools. Having it count towards your GPA will be that little boost to actually participate and be active in gym class. Most colleges today are looking for well rounded students, not just those who are strong physically or academically. Gym is still a class, and a GPA is and average of ALL your classes. It helps us get in shape and learn about fitness. And, even if being fit doesnt lead to more academic success, I think we can generally agree that its a good thing to encourage everyone. If some students are so focused on getting into college that they only care about their GPAs, then whats wrong with using that to motivate them to get into better shape? College is not the ultimate goal in life, and Id argue that living a life balanced by exercise and general fitness is more important than getting into a slightly better college in the long run. While PE classes might not represent academic ability, they represent the ability to show up and make some effort to do whatÃ¢â¬â¢s expected of you. For people who struggle, then effort should be taken into account, but so should results. Im not saying that everyone should have to do 50 pushups and run a 6-minute mile but the vast majority of people who cant meet a certain level of fitness should at least be able to make some progress toward that goal. Every other class carries the expectation that youll improve over the course of the year. Why shouldnt PE be the same? Math class, with its bright line between the right answer and the wrong answer, allows for students to do extra homework, present homework problems to the class, or participate in class discussions as ways to improve your grade even if youre not particularly good at math. So why cant you in PE? Yes, people who are naturally athletic will have an easier time doing it. So what? This is no different than people who have natural skill in math or language excelling in those classes. Some people say that the grading system for gym is unfair. I disagree. Most schools, like ours, grade students mostly on their effort, like; showing up, wearing the uniform, and participating, not on their ability to play a sport. Some people argue that Ã¢â¬Å"The only purpose of these tests is so that people who slack off in class can still bring up their grades. Ã¢â¬ Clearly incorrect. Gym was not designed to just raise the marks of slackers. Gym class was designed to teach kids how to lead a healthy life style and be active. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter if gym is optional or mandatory; the amount of effort you put in should be rewarded. If these Ã¢â¬Å"slackersÃ¢â¬ are putting effort into gym, they still should be rewarded for it. People also argue that Ã¢â¬Å"If an intelligent person isnÃ¢â¬â¢t that physically fit, it will affect what colleges they can go to, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s just not right. Ã¢â¬ First off, gym class is considered one of the easiest courses to pass. Secondly, gym class marking shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be based off of physical capability, most physical education courses are now based off of effort. If it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t marked like that, you cannot blame the course but the markers. Now that I have told you my views on gym grades, is yours still the same?
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Coronary artery disease essays Sherlock Holmes uses a variety of different methods when solving the mystery in A Study in Scarlet. The methods include; working backwards, deduction, and false argument by elimination. I will be describing these in this order because I theorize that in the end Holmes is really making educated guesses or assumptions. By addressing these methods in the descending order that follows, I hope to show that anyone could make these assumptions but wind up with a very different outcome depending on how the variables are eliminated. WORKING BACKWARDS is the method whereby a person starts with an end result or event and works back through a logical set of reasoning to arrive at certain conclusions. This is often used at crime scenes to build a case. Usually the police use fingerprints, DNA samples, and computer modeling to arrive at their conclusions which are based on scientific fact. This leaves little chance for error or false assumptions. When Sherlock Holmes was solving the mystery he used very loose associations that he then considered facts. An example was when he sniffed the dead mans lips. Sherlock detected a slightly sour smell which led him to the conclusion that the man had had poison forced upon him. When in fact there are numerous substances and/or conditioning that could produce a sour smell other than poison. With todays forensics saliva would have been gathered and tested before such a conclusion would be made. DEDUCTION is defined as reaching a conclusion by reasoning. This is probably the strongest method that Sherlock Holmes utilizes when solving the case. Deducing a conclusion is only as strong as the reasoning behind it. In many cases Sherlock Holmes established some fairly weak causal links. Sometimes he would state that a set of observations created a certain outcome. This could certainly of happened and could very well be the cause, but Holmes never eliminated any number of possible ...
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Enterprice system - Essay Example Therefore, client-server systems can definitely help them in making effective use of client-server technology. However, increased dependence on the centralized server is a disadvantage of such models because if the server goes down, the entire network of computers becomes unable to work. b) Thin-Client Model The thin client technology also provides server-based computing facility to companies (Kumar 2007). There is a browser terminal or a central server from which all other computers can access required information, as well as can do required work through sharing. Companies can use either standalone or wireless thin clients to run their business processes. The purpose of the technology is to facilitate businesses through reducing the total cost of ownership and providing easy and efficient usage. The main advantages of using think clients are security, efficient use of resources, and low cost (Kumar 2007). The main disadvantage of this technology is that not is not designed for heavy tasks. Answer No. 2 a) Risks to Data Integrity of Distributed Databases Ã¢â¬Å"A distributed database is a database that is split over multiple hardware devices but managed by a central database controllerÃ¢â¬ (Holmes n.d.). A distributed database means division of a database into different physical units separated by business or geographical regions. Some of the main advantages of using distributed databases in business include better control of resources and improved business performances. However, the risks associated with data integrity of distributed databases include accuracy of stored data and the risk of unauthorized access to spoil or alter the stored data. b) Strategies to Overcome Risks The first strategy that can be used to overcome such risks include double checking the database for database integrity, domain integrity, and referential integrity before and after making changes to the data. The second strategy is using authentication of the people trying to log on to the network. Using this feature, only officials are provided with passwords and biometrics that they can use to prove their identity, as well as to make secure use of the distributed network. Authentication is done to make the network safe by stopping and preventing unauthorized attempts to the network. Answer No. 3 Groupware is a term that refers to specialized software applications that help members of a group in sharing and synchronizing business information, as well as in communicating with each other in an effective manner. Ã¢â¬Å"Groupware can allow both geographically dispersed team members and a company's on-site workers to collaborate with each other through the use of computer networking technologiesÃ¢â¬ (Pinola, n.d.). Some of the main groupware technologies that are widely used in companies include shared Microsoft Office applications, email systems, video conferencing, electronic whiteboard, and instant messaging through messengers. All of these techniologies help e mployees in communicating with eah other regardig every business matter. These technologies also increase business efficency, as well as employee productivity. Therefore, the statement that helps in icnreasing on-going coordination between people is true. Answer No. 4 ICT, Information and Communication Technology, refers to every such technology that deals with electronic transfer of information from one point to another (Singleton 2010). The information exchange
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Logistics and Webiste Hosting - Essay Example For a novice entrepreneur, venturing into the corporate world, this not only amounts to added burden, but is also far more time-consuming. Both of these factors contribute negatively to the potential survival and subsequent growth of the business in the future. As an entrepreneur I need to be looking for ways to minimize cost and maximize efficiency, and hosting my own website is at the opposing end of this. With a business venture in its embryonic stages, it is not wise to be investing any unnecessary time or money when cheaper and effective alternatives are readily available. I know from experience that using a web-hosting website is convenient and cost-effective. 1and1.com is one of the many available service providers. All I had to do was sign up and register my unique domain name like logisticspartner.net, and now my website will be hosted by their server at modest charges. They also provide the opportunity to buy all similar domain names for example logisticspartner.org or logisticspartner.co to ensure the originality of my brand name. The only effort I needed to make was to verify the authenticity of the service provider, and to look for technical services compatible with my business type. A logistics business should not expect any extraordinarily heavy traffic therefore a service with a reasonable bandwidth and storage capacity should work just fine (Top10bestwebsitehosting.com, 2014). To top it all off, web-hosting websites provide customer assistance as well. Thus, as a business owner who is not very well equipped with technical expertise, I woul d prefer to use a web-hosting service instead of hosting my own website. Top10bestwebsitehosting.com. (2014). The top 10 web hosting companies of 2014. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.top10bestwebsitehosting.com/index.php?kw=web%20hosting&c=37398489468&t=search&p=&m=e&adpos=1t1&a=2710&gclid=CIDEtKK3nbwCFUVa3goduz0A6g
Monday, January 27, 2020
Analysis of Gun Shot Residue using Electron Microscopy (EM) Nathan Dean Thompson Review of the composition of gunshot residue (GSR) in coherence with its characteristics when analysed using electron microscopy (EM) and energy dispersive electron techniques. The key piece of evidence residing at incidents involving firearms is the gunshot residue (GSR) that is created when a gun is fired. Gunshot residue (GSR) can also be labelled as cartridge discharge residue (CDR) or firearms discharge residue (FDS) produced from firing a firearm. Gunshot residue contains a multitude of burned particles (potassium nitrite) however not all of the particles are burned and some particles remained unburned (Bailey et al, 2013), the discharge of a firearm initially produces a plume of airborne particulates; this plume contains a diverse mixture of vapours and particles that originates due to the upsurge of the cartridge from the firearm. Due to the organic disposition of the propellant, it has been proven that it can be difficult to analyse the GSRÃ¢â¬â¢s organic make-up from the propellants residue, although various techniques have been reported leading to promising analyses. Forensic analysts therefore typically use the inorganic components originating mainly from the primer to detect GSR particles on items in relation to the incident. The particular particulate of importance is composed of lead (Pb), barium (Ba) and antimony (Sb), each in varying quantities. The combusted material escapes the weapon through the openings as vapours and solidifies as particulate that varies in shape and size from submicron to over 100 microns (Ã ¼m) when exposed to the rapid temperature change between the vapour and the particulate. The three major components in the primers compound play important roles in the formation and identification of GSR; the initiator component consists of lead styphnate, the oxidizer component consists of barium nitrate and the fuel component consisting of antimony sulphide (Schwoeble and Exline, 2000). Available to GSR analysis are a vast array of techniques that can be used individually or coupled together for analysis of GSR particulates. Electron Microscopy (EM) is microscopic technique uses a particle beam of electrons to illuminate the specimen to produce a magnified image. Electron microscopes have an increased resolving power than a standard light microscope as of their ability to achieve magnification levels of up to 2 million times, whereas ordinary light microscopes are limited to useful magnifications below 2 thousand times. The electron microscope uses electro-charged and electromagnetic lenses to control the magnitude and intensity of the electron beam before focussing it to form an image. In conveyance, the electron beam first gets diffracted by the specimen, and then the lenses re-focus the beam into a Fourier-transformed image of the diffracted pattern for the investigation of the targeted area of the sample. Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM-EDX) has developed to become the technique of choice for GSR analysis due to it being widely available, spatially judicious and non-destructive. SEM looks at identifying different particles that have a light molecular weight, while the heavier elements rely on a technique known as x-ray diffraction (XDF). The electrons interact with the samples atoms that get detected through the detector, stored and produce signals containing information about the samples surface topography, composition and other elemental properties like conductivity. Throughout the interactions of primary electrons secondary particles; these electrons arise due to inelastic collisions between primary electrons (the beam) and loosely bound electrons of the conduction band (more probable) or tightly bound valence electrons. The energy transferred is sufficient enough to break the bond that binds them to the solid and are ejected. The interaction ejects electrons typically have Ã¢â°Ë 5 50 eV. 50 eV is an arbitrary cut-off point at which anything below this value is deemed to be secondary electrons. In SEM-EDX the spectra produced through the analyses of the backscattered electrons provides qualitative information of the particles present due to the high proportion of the numerous scattering effects. However the backscattered particles produced by the ionic beam customarily undertakes a single scattering event; this single event also encourages for the quantitative understanding of the particles energy levels and through being stored electronically and then gets presented on a spectra. The particle spectrum (EBS) allows for the calculation of the total charge being deposited against the dissimilarity of the charges present within the matrixÃ¢â¬â¢s signal as a function of depth; this allows the X-ray absorption to be calculated accurately thus further enabling the quantitative analysis of the constituent elements. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy is also a non-destructive method of analysis but lacks spatial resolution and also suffers from quantification problems. While SEM coupled with Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM-WDX) utilize a micro calorimeter detector which offers a greater enhanced sensitivity to detect minute trace elements compared with SEM-EDX but is incapable of providing quantitative information for the type of element present (Molina et al., 2007). Micro Particle Induced X-ray Emission (Ã ¼-PIXE) uses an ionic beam consists of protons with energy values between 2 and 3 MeV to produce the same intensity of X-ray emissions as the SEM-EDX technique (Romolo et al, 2013), however Ã ¼-PIXE detects elements at the value of mg kgÃâ"Ã ¾1 due to the lesser primary bremsstrahlung background of decelerated charged particulates produced by protons. Previous preliminary work has shown that Ã ¼-PIXEs sensitivity levels are far greater than those of SEM/EDX to the trace elements in GSR particles (Christopher et al, 2013). Furthermore similar studies have recently demonstrated that Ã ¼-PIXE coupled together with Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) technique is capable of providing an unprecedented characterization of the GSR particles that arise from primers not containing lead. Multivariate analysis confirms the validity of the approximations used in order to streamline the method, thus increasing the validation of the analytical procedures used. This procedure has the ability to provide reproducible and quantitative measurements of a population of GSR particles. A quantitative and discriminative protocol for populations of GSRÃ¢â¬â¢s is unprecedented, thus the grouping behavior of the particles from three cartridge designs from one manufacturer can be shown. The method was shown to be non-destructive even under unrealistically prolonged analysis times. Relocation of the particles from SEM technique was demonstrated down to diameters of 1 Ã ¼m, and new developments in the technology could lower this limit in the near future (Dockery and Goode., 2003). The reproducibility of the method for reanalysis of the same set of particles showed variations in the measured concentrations for most elements of around 10% and to those that reflect the spatial inhomogeneity in the particles as well as the precision of the protocol. Two populations of particles from the hands of the shooter of the same make of cartridge could not be discriminated under the same protocol, however the discrimination between the three different makes of ammunition was obtained with a significant separation value with above 99% confidence rating after analysis of the shooters hands. This is particularly interesting in forensic science because we have studied three makes all containing lead, antimony and barium in the primer. Correspondingly, particles produced by one make of cartridge and compared with different firearms were not discriminated (Christopher et al., 2013) (Romolo et al., 2013). SEM-EDX is not a technique which should be dependent on upon the determination of firearm discharge by an individual, nor is it a reliable technique to determine self-inflicted sustained wounds or not self-inflicted. Moreover a positive GSR result may be of use, while a negative result produced is not helpful as the result may indicate that a person discharged the firearm post to death or whether the firearm was discharged prior to death. When the different types of cartridge shells or cases, belonging to a multitude of different firearms are recovered from the crime scene, the GSR particles are thoroughly compared and analysed, with a known Ã¢â¬ËcontrolÃ¢â¬â¢ source compared against the samples obtained from the suspect can lead to the inconclusive match between the particles morphology and characteristics and the discussion of the evidence in court. This is because of the sensitivity of the technique utilized to analyse trace elements and its inability to offer quantitative information from single particles having much lesser sensitivity levels to analyse light and heavy metals. Therefor this creates a requirement of a technique that retains its non-destructive nature with the enhanced sensitivity to analyse both light and heavy metal particles more efficiently (French and Morgan, 2015), yet it has a much greater proficiency than SEM-EDX to collect chemical information from singular GSR particles and quantify th is information allowing for greater judgement between multiple sources. The effectiveness of sample sizes is significant at low particle numbers. However their evidential value might still be added even at their low number of particles by excluding possible sources for a GSR sample. However there are still implications to be measured that arise from forensic investigation and the observation of analysis to be considered, including the need to prevent contamination of the sample through primary, secondary and possibly tertiary transfer during the collection phase, as well as the importance of acknowledging the potential risk of contamination that will result in the loss of integrity and the evidential value in court that might arise through firearm incidents reconstruction for further evidential analysis is also stressed. Through the means of experimental studies, present techniques can be advanced to further improve the dynamic understanding of GSR dynamics of transfer, depositing and assisting in forensic reconstruction of firearm incidents. References Christopher, M, E., Warmenhaeven, J, W., Romolo, F, S., Daghi, M., Webb, R., Jeynes, C., Ward, N, I., Kirkby, K, J., Bailey, M, J., (2013). A new quantitative method for gunshot residue analysis by ion beam analysis. Analyst. 138, (16), 4649-4655 Molina, D, K., Martinez, M., Garcia, J., Daimio, V, J., (2007). Gunshot residue testing in suicides: part1: analysis by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray. Journal of Forensic Medical Pathology. (3), 187-190 Schwoeble, A, J and Exline, D, L., (2000). Current methods in Forensic Gunshot residue analysis. 1st ed. New York: CRC press Romolo, F, S., Christopher, M, E., Donghi, M., Ripani, L., Jeynes, C., Webb, R, P., Ward, N, I., Kirkby, K, J., Bailey, M, J., (2013). Integrated Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) in Gunshot Residue (GSR) characterisation. Forensic Science International. 231, (1-3), 219-228 Rosenberg, M, B and Dockery, C, R., (2008).Determining the lifetime of detectable amounts of gunshot residue in the hands of a shooter using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy. 62, (11), 1238-1241 Dockery, C, R and Goode, S, R., (2003). Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for gunshot residue on the hands of a shooter. Applied Optics. 42, (30), 6153-6158 French, J and Morgan, R., (2015). An experimental investigation of the indirect transfer and deposition of gunshot residue: further studies carried out with SEM-EDX analysis. Forensic Science International. 247, 14-17 Weblearn, [online] accessed 27th April 2015, available from https://bblearn.londonmet.ac.uk/webapps/portal/execute/tabs/tabAction?tab_tab_group_id=_1_1>
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Needs Ã¢â¬â drives Ã¢â¬â behaviour Ã¢â¬â goals Ã¢â¬â reduction or release of tension Behaviour is both directed to, and results from, unsatisfied needs. The word unsatisfied is most important. As Maslow says, Ã¢â¬Å"If we are interested in what actually motivates us and not what has or will, or might motivate us, then a satisfied need is not a motivator. Ã¢â¬ KellyÃ¢â¬â¢s model of motivation presents a sort of chicken-egg dilemma. Which comes first, the goal or the need? When we talk about behaviour being goal-oriented, we mean that individuals feel a need, want, desire or drive to do something that leads to the achievement of a goal.But is the goal, as part of the self, already there? Is it the factor that stimulates the need? Are goals and needs the same thing? It is useful to separate the two concepts. We can define a goal as that outcome which we strive to attain in order to satisfy certain needs. The goal is the end result, the need the driving force that spurs us towards that result. A student might have a goal to get an A in a course, but this goal may reflect a number of different needs.He or she may feel a need to confirm his or her competence; friends may all be getting AÃ¢â¬â¢s; he or she may wish to have the esteem of others; simply to do the best possible: to keep a scholarship. It is difficult to infer needs from goals. We talk about money as a motivator. Money represents so many different things to different people that saying that individuals Ã¢â¬Å"work for moneyÃ¢â¬ is meaningless. What we have to know is what needs the money is satisfying. Is it survival, status, belonging, achievement, a convenient scorecard for performance?Remember, behaviour is both directed to, and results from, unsatisfied needs. Every individual has a number of needs which vie for satisfaction. How do we choose between these competing forces? Do we try to satisfy them all? Much like a small child in a candy store, faced with the dilemma of spending his or her allowance, we are forced to decide what we want the most; that is we satisfy the strongest need first. Although there is general agreement among psychologists that man experiences a variety of needs, there is considerable disagreement as to what these needs are Ã¢â¬â and their relative importance.There have been a number of attempts to present models of motivation which list a specific number of motivating needs, with the implication that these lists are all-inclusive and represent the total picture of needs. Unfortunately, each of these models has weaknesses and gaps, and we are still without a general theory of motivation. In this article, I will describe the four main theories of motivation. These are MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy of Needs, HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s Dual-Factor Theory, The Need for Achievement and David McClellandÃ¢â¬â¢s work and VroomÃ¢â¬â¢s Expectancy Motivation Theory. Hierarchy of Needs Ã¢â¬â Abraham MaslowOne model of motivation that has gained a l ot of attention, but not complete acceptance, has been put forward by Abraham Maslow. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory argues that individuals are motivated to satisfy a number of different kinds of needs, some of which are more powerful than others (or to use the psychological jargon, are more prepotent than others). The term prepotency refers to the idea that some needs are felt as being more pressing than others. Maslow argues that until these most pressing needs are satisfied, other needs have little effect on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour.In other words, we satisfy the most prepotent needs first and then progress to the less pressing ones. As one need becomes satisfied, and therefore less important to us, other needs loom up and become motivators of our behaviour. Maslow represents this prepotency of needs as a hierarchy. The most prepotent needs are shown at the bottom of the ladder, with prepotency decreasing as one progresses upwards. SELF-ACTUALISATION Ã¢â¬â reaching your maxim um potential, doing you own best thing ESTEEM Ã¢â¬â respect from others, self-respect, recognitionBELONGING Ã¢â¬â affiliation, acceptance, being part of something SAFETY Ã¢â¬â physical safety, psychological security PHYSIOLOGICAL Ã¢â¬â hunger, thirst, sex, rest The first needs that anyone must satisfy are physiological. As Maslow says: Ã¢â¬Å"Undoubtedly these physiological needs are the most prepotent of all needs. What this means specifically is that in the human being who is missing everything in life in an extreme fashion, it is most likely that the major motivation would be the physiological needs rather than any others.A person who is lacking food, safety, love and esteem would probably hunger for food more strongly than anything elseÃ¢â¬ . Once the first level needs are largely satisfied, Maslow maintains, the next level of needs emerges. Individuals become concerned with the need for safety and security Ã¢â¬â protection from physical harm, disaster, illness and security of income, life-style and relationships. Similarly, once these safety needs have become largely satisfied, individuals become concerned with belonging Ã¢â¬â a sense of membership in some group or groups, a need for affiliation and a feeling of acceptance by others.When there is a feeling that the individual belongs somewhere, he or she is next motivated by a desire to be held in esteem. People need to be thought of as worthwhile by others, to be recognised as people with some value. They also have a strong need to see themselves as worthwhile people. Without this type of self-concept, one sees oneself as drifting, cut off, pointless. Much of this dissatisfaction with certain types of job centres around the fact that they are perceived, by the people performing them, as demeaning and therefore damaging to their self-concept.Finally, Maslow says, when all these needs have been satisfied at least to some extent, people are motivated by a desire to self-actualise, to ach ieve whatever they define as their maximum potential, to do their thing to the best of their ability. Maslow describes self-actualisation as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"A musician must make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write, if he is to be ultimately happy. What a man can do, he must do. This need we may call self-actualisation Ã¢â¬ ¦ It refers to the desire for self-fulfilment, namely the tendency for one to become actualised in what one is potentially.This tendency might be phrased as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming. The specific form these needs take will of course vary greatly from person to person. In one individual it may be expressed maternally, as the desire to be an ideal mother, in another athletically, in still another aesthetically, the painting of pictures, and in another inventively in the creation of new contrivances. It is not necessarily a creative urge although in people who have any capabilitie s for creation it will take this form.Ã¢â¬ Several points must be made concerning MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s model of motivation. First, it should be made clear that he does not mean that individuals experience only one type of need at a time. In fact, we probably experience all levels of needs all the time, only to varying degrees. In many parts of the world, hunger is a genuine reality but we have all experienced the phenomenon of not being able to concentrate upon a job because of a growling stomach. Productivity drops prior to lunch as people transfer their thoughts from their jobs to the upcoming meal.After lunch, food it not uppermost in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds but perhaps rest is, as a sense of drowsiness sets in. Similarly, in almost all organisational settings, individuals juggle their needs for security (Ã¢â¬Å"Can I keep this job? Ã¢â¬ ) with needs for esteem (Ã¢â¬Å"If I do what is demanded by the job, how will my peers see me, and how will I see myself? Ã¢â¬ ) Given a situatio n where management is demanding a certain level of performance, but where group norms are to produce below these levels, all these issues are experienced. If the individual does not produce to the level demanded by management, he or she may lose the job (security).But if he or she conforms to managementÃ¢â¬â¢s norms rather than those of the group, it may ostracise him or her (belonging) while the individual may see him or herself as a turncoat (esteem) and may have a feeling of having let the side down (self-esteem. ) We do not progress simply from one level in the hierarchy to another in a straightforward, orderly manner; there is a constant, but ever-changing pull from all levels and types of needs. A second point that must be made about MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy is that the order in which he has set up the needs does not necessarily reflect their prepotence for every individual.Some people may have such a high need for esteem that they are able to subordinate their needs for sa fety, or their physiological or belonging needs to these. The war hero springs to mind. There is little concern for safety or physical comfort as the seeker of glory rushes forward into the muzzle of destruction. A third, and very important point to be made about MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchical model is the assertion that once a need is satisfied it is no longer a motivator Ã¢â¬â until it re-emerges. Food is a poor motivator after a meal. The point in this is clear for management.Unfortunately, many organisations and individuals still fail to get the message. Most incentive schemes are based upon needs that have already been largely satisfied. If management placed emphasis on needs that have not been satisfied, employees would be more likely to be motivated towards achieving the goals of the organisation. Human behaviour is primarily directed towards unsatisfied needs. Finally, an important aspect of MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s model is that it provides for constant growth of the individual. Th ere is no point at which everything has been achieved.Having satisfied the lower needs, one is always striving to do things to the best of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability, and best is always defined as being slightly better than before. There has been a great deal of debate over MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchical concept of motivation. It has a basic attraction to most people because it seems to be logical, to make sense. Dual-Factor Theory Ã¢â¬â Frederick Herzberg Frederick Herzberg and his associates began their research into motivation during the 1950?s, examining the models and assumptions of Maslow and others.The result of this work was the formulation of what Herzberg termed the Motivation-Hygiene Theory (M-H). The basic hypotheses of this theory are that: 1. There are two types of motivators, one type which results in satisfaction with the job, and the other which merely prevents dissatisfaction. The two types are quite separate and distinct from one another. Herzberg called the factors wh ich result in job satisfaction motivators and those that simply prevented dissatisfaction hygienes 2. The factors that lead to job satisfaction (the motivators) are:achievement recognition work itself responsibility advancement 3. The factors which may prevent dissatisfaction (the hygienes) are: company policy and administration working conditions supervision interpersonal relations money status securityHygienes, if applied effectively, can at best prevent dissatisfaction: if applied poorly, they can result in negative feelings about the job. Motivators are those things that allow for psychological growth and development on the job. They are closely related to the concept of self-actualisation, involving a challenge, an opportunity to extend oneself to the fullest, to taste the pleasure of accomplishment, and to be recognised as having done something worthwhile. Hygienes are simply factors that describe the conditions of work rather than the work itself.HerbergÃ¢â¬â¢s point is tha t if you want to motivate people, you have to be concerned with the job itselfand not simply with the surroundings. In a medical sense, growth, healing and development occur as natural internal processes. They are the result of proper diet, exercise, sleep etc. Hygienic procedures simply prevent disease from occurring. They do not promote growth per se. Herzberg says that we should focus our attention on the individuals in jobs, not on the things that we surround them with.He maintains that we tend to think that growth and development will occur if we provide good working conditions, status, security and administration, whereas in fact what stimulates growth (and motivation to grow and develop) are opportunities for achievement, recognition, responsibility and advancement. Once again, this theory has a basic attraction. As Joe Kelly puts it, however: Ã¢â¬Å"It is always as well to bear in mind that academics, who place considerable value on autonomy and inner direction, have an obse ssion about making work meaningful.The notion that it is possible to realise manÃ¢â¬â¢s true nature through creative work which is its own reward is an exceedingly attractive proposition to the learned don which is rarely fully shared by his wifeÃ¢â¬ . Herzberg goes further than Maslow, cutting the hierarchy off near the top and maintaining that motivation results only from some elements of esteem needs and self-actualisation. The Need for Achievement Ã¢â¬â David McClelland The one single motivating factor which has received the most attention in terms of research, is the need for achievement (n-ach). As a result, we know more about n-ach than any other motivational factor.Much of this knowledge is due the work of David McClelland of Harvard. To illustrate what he means by the need for achievement, McClelland cites the following example: Ã¢â¬Å"Several years ago, a careful study was made of 450 workers who had been thrown out of work by a plant shutdown in Erie, Pennsylvania. Most of the unemployed workers stayed at home for a while and then checked with the employment service to see if their old jobs or similar ones were available. But a small minority among them behaved differently; the day they were laid off, they started job hunting.They checked both national and local employment offices; they studied the Help Wanted sections of the papers; they checked through their union, their church and various fraternal organisations; they looked into training courses to learn a new skill; they even left town to look for work, while the majority when questioned said they would not under any circumstances move away to obtain a job. Obviously the members of the active minority were differently motivatedÃ¢â¬ . Individuals with a high n-ach have a number of distinctive characteristics which separate them from their peers.First of all, they like situations where they can take personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems. This allows them to gain perso nal satisfaction from their achievements. They do not like situations where success or failure results from chance. The important thing is that the outcome be the result of their own skill and effort. A second characteristic of high n-ach people is that they like to set moderately high goals for themselves. These goals are neither so low that they can be achieved with little challenge, nor so high that they are impossible.High n-ach individuals prefer goals that require all-out effort and the exercise of all their abilities. Once again, the achievement of this type of objective results in greater personal satisfaction. This phenomenon can be observed in very young children. A child may be given a game of ring toss, told that he or she scores whenever a ring lands over the peg and then left alone to play the game. McClelland comments: Ã¢â¬Å"Obviously children who stand next to the peg can score a ringer every time; but if they stand a long distance away, they will hardly ever get a ringer.The curious fact is that children with a high concern for achievement quite consistently stand at moderate distances from the peg where they are apt to get achievement satisfaction Ã¢â¬ ¦ The ones with low n-Achievement, on the other hand, distribute their choices of where to stand quite randomly over the entire distance. In other words, people with high n-Achievement prefer a situation where there is a challenge, where there is some real risk of not succeeding, but not so great a risk that they might not overcome it by their own effortsÃ¢â¬ .A third distinctive characteristic of high achievers is that they want concrete feedback on their performance. Only certain types of jobs provide this kind of feedback, however, and so some kinds of jobs are unattractive to high achievers. For instance, teachers receive only imprecise, hazy feedback as to the effectiveness of their efforts while production managers have a daily output chart to look at with either joy or disappointment . There are some additional minor characteristics possessed by high achievers. They tend to enjoy travel, are willing to give up a bird inthe hand for two in the bush and prefer experts to friends as working partners. The image is clear; the high achiever is a personality type suited admirably to certain jobs and not others. It would be wrong to treat all individuals as high achievers and attempt to motivate them by offering them challenging jobs, rapid and objective feedback on performance and personal responsibility for success or failure. The need for affiliation and the need for power McClelland has also identified two other types of need, the need for affiliation (n-affil) and the need for power (n-pow).His testing procedure is concerned with the application of what is known as the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), a series of pictures which are presented to a subject, one at a time. The individual is asked to tell a story about each picture. The underlying assumption of the TA T procedure is that it will reveal the dominant thoughts and attitudes of subjects. For instance, an individual with high n-ach will formulate stories concerned with getting things done, challenging situations, feelings of satisfaction at having done a good job and so on.The individual with a high need for affiliation (n-affil) will reflect sensitivity to the feelings of others, a desire for friendly relationships and a reference to situations which involve human interactions. High n-power subjects will relate stories reflecting the process of influencing others, controlling and manipulating others. The need for affiliation The need for affiliation is similar to MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s need to belong. It can be a dominant motivating force affecting behaviour and may manifest itself in many different ways.The novelist John OÃ¢â¬â¢Hara was supposedly obsessed with the fact that, not having a college degree, he was excluded from membership of certain clubs and societies. At the other end of the spectrum, James Coyne, a former Governor of the Bank of Canada, was described as the most unclubbable man in the country, as he held an aversion to joining groups. In its most straightforward form, a need for affiliation manifests itself in a desire to be liked by others, to be part of a group, to enter into warm, personal relationships.High n-affil people value relationships over accomplishments, and friendship over power. The need for power In studying the motivational profiles of North American managers, McClelland noticed that many of those who reach the top of organisations and are rated as highly effective in their positions, demonstrate a concern for influencing people. This is, in McClellandÃ¢â¬â¢s terms, a need for power. This need is not simply seen as the raw desire to control others or simply to exert authority.McClelland makes the point that: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ this need must be disciplined and controlled so that it is directed toward the benefit of the institution as a whole and not toward the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s personal aggrandisement. Moreover, the top managerÃ¢â¬â¢s need for power ought to be greater than his or her need for being liked by people. Ã¢â¬ Power motivation refers not to autocratic, tyrannical behaviour but to a need to have some impact, to be influential and effective in achieving organisational goals. Results McClelland examined the motivational needs of a large group of managers whose units demonstrated varying degrees of morale.The most important factor, in predicting whether a managerÃ¢â¬â¢s subordinates would exhibit high morale, turned out to be how their need for power related to their need for affiliation. Teams which exhibited higher morale were those in which the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s need or power exceeded their desire to be liked. McClelland puts forward the following explanation: Ã¢â¬Å"Sociologists have long argued that, for a bureaucracy to function effectively, those who manage it must be universalistic in applyi ng rules. That is, if they make exceptions for the particular needs of individuals, the whole system will break down.The manager with a high need to be liked is precisely the one who wants to stay on good terms with everybody and therefore is the one most likely to make exceptions in terms of in terms of particular needs. Ã¢â¬ ¦Sociological theory and our data both argue Ã¢â¬ ¦ that the person whose need for affiliation is high does not make a good manager. Ã¢â¬ Organisation man? Power-motivated managers, like achievement orientated managers and the affiliators, demonstrate distinct characteristics: They are highly organisation-minded. They feel responsible for building organisations to which they belong.They believe strongly in centralised authority. They like to work. This is different from the high achiever who likes to minimise work by becoming more efficient. While the high achiever minimises effort and maximises output, the power-motivated manager enjoys work for its own sake. They are willing to sacrifice some of their own self-interest for the good of the organisation. They have a strong sense of justice, feeling that hard work and sacrifice should be rewarded. The picture of McClellandÃ¢â¬â¢s power-motivated manager is reminiscent of the organisation mancaricatured by William Whyte.The message seems to be that if one is dedicated to the institution, committed to the work ethic and unflagging in energy and devotion, success will follow. However, the increasing popularity of switching jobs as a method of rapid advancement and the rapidity of change in organisations somewhat contradicts this type of thinking. Expectancy Theory of motivation Ã¢â¬â Victor Vroom Victor Vroom, of Carnegie-Mellon in Pittsburgh, has challenged the assertion of the human relationists that job satisfaction leads to increased productivity.(This theory has been called the contented cow approach to management.) The assumption is that if management keeps employees happy, t hey will respond by increasing productivity. Herzberg, in a delightful film of motivation, highlights the fallacy of this assumption with an interview between a manager and a secretary. The secretary is complaining about the job, and the manager lists all the things that have been done for the secretary Ã¢â¬â increases salary, new typewriter, better hours, status and so on Ã¢â¬â at the end of which she looks straight at him and asks, So what have to done for me lately?The point may be made that satisfied needs do not motivate people Hygienes simply keep employees quiet for a time. For an individual to be motivated to perform a certain task, he or she must expect that completion of the task will lead to achievement of his or her goals. The task is not necessarily the goal itself but is often the means of goal attainment. Vroom defines motivation as: Ã¢â¬Å"A process governing choices, made by persons or lower organisms, among alternative forms of voluntary behaviour.Ã¢â¬ In o rganisational terms, this concept of motivation pictures an individual, occupying a role, faced with a set of alternative voluntary behaviours, all of which have some associated outcomes attached to them. If the individual chooses behaviour 1, outcome A results; if 2 then B results and so on. Knowing that individuals choose behaviours in order to obtain certain outcomes is nothing new. The question is why they choose one outcome over another.The answer provided by the motivational theories in the other articles in this short series (Maslow, Herzberg, McClelland) is that the choice reflects the strength of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s desire or need for a specific outcome at a certain time. However, Vroom makes the point that task goals (productivity, quality standards or similar goals attached to jobs) are often means to an end, rather than the end in itself. There is a second level of outcomes which reflect the real goals of individuals and these may be attained, in varying degrees, thr ough task behaviour.An individual is motivated to behave in a certain manner because (a) he or she has a strong desire for a certain task outcome and a reasonable expectation of achieving that outcome and (b) because he or she also expects that the achievement of the task outcome will result in reward in terms of pay, promotion, job security, or satisfaction of individual needs Ã¢â¬â physiological, safety, esteem and so on. Let us take a look at how the model works. Imagine a manager has as a task goal, receive good ratings for internal customer service.The choice of this task goal reflects three things: The strength of the need for good ratings versus some other goal. The expectation that this goal can be achieved. The expectation that the achievement of this task goal will lead to desired rewards Ã¢â¬â promotion, increased security and so on. Vroom would maintain that we do things in our jobs in order to achieve second level rewards: Ã¢â¬Å"If a worker sees high productivity as a path leading to the attainment of one or more of his or her personal goals, he or she will tend to be a high producer.Conversely, if he or she sees low productivity as path to the achievement of his or her goals, he or she will tend to be a low producerÃ¢â¬ . Certainly Vroom has hit on an important aspect of motivation. We do not attempt simply to satisfy a need or even a set of needs in a straightforward, Ã¢â¬Å"If I do this, then I will achieve thatÃ¢â¬ manner. We work with a chain of goals and rewards, where goals in one area are only a means of achieving goals in another.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Channy Dr. Broussard 02/19/2013 The reason why IÃ¢â¬â¢m in college is for to better myself by obtaining a degree in Elementary Education, to show my family that I can achieve a degree and for my children. I been out of school for twelve years so this was a big step for me. Trying to juggle college and working full-time is going to be a challenge. I am in college because it is the best way for me to get a high paying job.By going to school and obtaining a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in education I will be doing what it takes to accomplish my goals. Pie- In order to become a teacher, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to go to a four year university, pass the Praxis, and the state board. Illustration- The information one learns in college classes will prepare them to teach because it provides the framework for future knowledge and growth. Explanation- Getting a degree is important to me because it allows me to follow in my mother footsteps and teach young children.In order to become a teacher, IÃ¢â¬â¢l l have to go to a four-year university, pass the Praxis, and the state board. The information one learns in college classes prepare them to teach because it provides the framework for future knowledge and growth. If I do not acquire this information I will be unfit to teach in a classroom setting. Getting a degree is important to me because it allows me to follow in my mother footsteps and teach young children.